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Zvose zvaunoda kuziva pamusoro pe spiro mazana

Zvose zvaunoda kuziva pamusoro pe spiro mazana

Nhanganyaya kune Spiro michina

A spiro makemikari inowanikwa muhupenyu umo mabhini maviri ebicyclic akabatanidzwa neatomu imwechete. Muzvisikwa, zvivako zvezvindori zvingangove zvakafanana kana zvakasiyana, uye atomu inosungirira zvindori zviviri inonzi spiroatom (inopisa atomu), kazhinji Icho chikamu che 4 carbon (inozivikanwawo semhepo inopisa), uye inogona uyewo uve silicon, phosphorus, kana arsenic. Inonzi spiro atomu inowanzoitwa quaternary carbon atom. Iro spiro chimiro chichashandisa mababarese kunyora nhamba yemhete zvakasiyana. Nhamba yemhete inewo inonzi spiro atomu pachayo, uye nhamba shomanana ichava pamberi pe nhamba uye yakaparadzaniswa nedhidhiro.

Zvimwe zvindori zviviri mu molekemu zvinosanganisira atomu yekodhi (mune mamwe makemikari, mamwe maatomu, akadai seaslicon, phosphorus, arsenic, nezvimwewo). Zvindori zviviri zviri pazvikwata zviviri zvakasiyana-siyana kune umwe neumwe: zvakakodzera kushandiswa kuti spiro zvinokonzerwa chiral uye zvinogona kugadziriswa kuva optical isomers (ona optical isomerism). Mukutaura kwemafomu, huwandu hweH2C = C = CH2 ndeyechero yepirose yakanakisisa, uye kushandiswa kwakakodzera kushandiswa kwakadai se1,3-propadienediic acid inogadzirisa uye inogona kupatsanurwa kuva maviri inogadzirisa isomeri. muviri.

Classificatio

(1) Maererano nehuwandu hwepiro maatomu, spiro chimiro chinogona kuenzanisirwa kuva imwe spiro compound, dispiro, katatu spiro, uye mutevedzeri wemiti yakawanda ane mazhinji eatro maatomu.

(2) Iyo carbocyclic spiro inowanikwa uye inonzi heteroocyclic spiro inogadziriswa inogona kuenzaniswa maererano nemhando yeatomu inenge iripo, uye apo carbon atom inonzi carbocyclic spiro inowanzosimbiswa neimwe yemaatomu, inonzi heteroocyclic spiro inoumbwa.

(3) Maererano nemhando yemhete, inogona kugoverwa kuva yakazara, isaturated, inonhuhwirira uye aliphatic spiro michina.

(4) Kugadzirisa heterospirocyclic makemikari. Iyo spiro atomu mu spiro makomiti inogona kunge iri atomu yebhoni kana zvimwe zvinhu zvakadai saSi, N, P, Ge nezvimwe. Kana iyo spiro atomu iatomu yesimbi, sangano rekubatanidza rinowanzoumbwa, uye iyo spiro yakagadzirwa inotumidzwa sekubatanidza heterocyclic compound.

Polymeric spiro chikamu

Iyo polymeric spiro iri purogiramu inobatanidza maviri kana kupfuura maatomu e spiro sezvindori zvitatu kana kupfuura. Paunenge uchitumidza zita rokuti spiro chimiro, chirevo chemabare chinowedzera di-, tri-, tetra-, ..., nezvimwewo nezita rinoreva nhamba yeatomu dzeatro dziripo zvakasiyana pakati pemhete. Maatomu ari mu spiro akabatanidzwa ave akaenzanisirwa kuverengwa. Izwi rokuti polyspirocyclic rinoumba rinotanga neine ring ring inobatanidza atomu spiro, inonzi inonzi ring ring. Iyi mapolisipirocyclic mamolekemu inogona kuva neviri kana kupfuura inogadzirisa zvindori uye inosanganiswa nemutauro we-multi-spirocyclic. Pakati pavo, imwe chete yeatomu yemhepo yakabatana kune mumwe nemumwe. Zita racho riri munhete yegumbo rinotanga neatomu iri pedyo neatrosi inonzi spiro, yakanyorwa se nhamba 1, uye iyo molecule ndiyo inotanga kuverengwa neyo molecule.

Mamwe maviri kana kupfuura emakumbo endedzero, nhamba yokutanga yesimbi yekupedzisira ichava neimwe nzira yekusarudza. Apo chekutanga spiroatom inenge ichiverengwa, inotevera michero inonzi spiro inofanira kunge yakabatana nediki duku rinogona kumira. Kuverenga. Ngatitii pane kemukari ine maviri emakumbo, rimwe rine maatomu e6 uye rimwe rine maatomu e8. Nhamba iyi inotanga nechindori cheAXMUMX, nokuti pashure pekuverenga, spiroatom ichaverengwa 6. Kana ringinenge iine 6 atomu inotanga, spiroatom ichaverengwa 8. Nhungamiro yenhamba inoratidzirwa ne spiroatom (kutanga pakutanga spiroatom yenheyo yakagara yaverengwa). Ngatitii atomu yekona inotanga kuverenga munharaunda imwe, uye kana nhamba yacho isingapfuuri nhamba kune imwe nzvimbo, iyo inokonya inosarudzwa. Nhungamiro ine nhamba shomanana inoshandiswa kutanga mazita. Muchikamu chinotevera cheatomu inotenderera, nhamba yehuwandu yehuwandu haina kukosha. Mune zvimwe zviitiko, yekutanga, yechitatu, yechina kana yepamusoro spiroatoms ichagadzirirwa kuenhamba imwechete pasinei nokuti inotaridzirwa sei. Kusarudzwa kwenhamba yekuverenga kunosarudzwa nehuwandu hwekuverenga apo nhamba yakasiyana yekuona kweatomu inosangana, uye kutungamirirwa kwemaodzanyemba kuverengwa kweatomu kunosarudzwa. Somuenzaniso, kana nhamba ye numbering mune imwe nzira, nhamba ye spiroatom imwe neimwe ndeye 8, 3, 5, 7, uye nhamba ye spiroatoms mune imwe nzira ndeyo 10, 3, 5, 7, uye kutungamirirwa kwechipiri inosarudzwa. . Muchiitiko ichi, kune chinangwa chekutanga, nhamba iri pakati peatomu maviri inonzi 9 uye 7, uye mune imwe nhamba yakatarisana, 10 uye 7. Kuverenga kweiyo chero ipi zvayo yeatomu mushure mokunge isingakoshi, uye nhungamiro yekuverenga inotsanangurwa nekutungamirirwa kwenhamba 9.

Mukutumidza mazita akawanda emhete dzepiro, nhamba yekutanga pakati pemakabhesi inoratidza kuti atomu muyete yekutanga iri pedyo ne spiro atomu ndiyo nhamba imwe. Nhamba dzinosara dzinomiririra nhamba yeatomu pakati peatrosi spiro, kana maatomu ari munhare yekupedzisira. Nhamba imwe neimwe inoparadzaniswa nenguva (English nguva). Mumuenzaniso uyu, pane maatomu maviri (akaverengwa 1 ne2) vasati vatanga spiroatom (3). Hapana maatomu ari pakati pe3 ne4 spiroatoms, uye zvakafanana kune spiroatoms pa4 uye 5, 5 uye 6. Kune maatomu maviri pairi rechipiri chendangara, 6 uye 5, 5 uye 4, uye kune imwe pakati pe4 ne3.

Nokudaro, kuwirirana [2.0.0.0.2.1.1.1] kunowanikwa. Mumuenzaniso uri kurudyi, pane maviri spiroatoms, saka zita rokuti dispiro rinotanga. Muhombe yekutanga yekupedzisira, pane maatomu maviri, zvinoratidza zita rokuti dispiro [2. Zvadaro, kune maatomu imwe neane mune imwe ringinhorera mukati meviri spiroatoms, achizarura zita rokuti madonni [2.1.3 5. Yechipiri spiroatom, inonzi 5, yakawedzerwa senzira iyo ichasangana nenhamba yeatomu mushure mekuwanda kweatomu mumutsetse wekupedzisira, nguva yekupedzisira kuwedzera 9 uye 10 atomu pakati pe3 ne5 spiroatoms Uyezve wedzera alkane ane nhamba imwechete yeatomu dze spiro yakagadzirwa, chirevo, zitaispiro [2.1.3 5 .2 3] chirevo chakaratidzwa nezita racho.

Zvose zvinonzi nomenclature zve spiro zvinogadzirwa
Iyo monospirocyclic ikamu inosarudza zita remubereki hydrocarbon maererano nehuwandu hweatomu eatoni inobatanidza mumhemberero yekugadzira; iyo maatomu ose ari munhete yepiro inowanikwa muchirongwa chechendhe duku uye rhete rukuru uye spiro maatomu haachiri kuderedzwa; ipapo ivo vanoteverwa nezvikwereti. Kuenzanisa kwezviyero zvezenderedzwa rose kunoratidzwa nehuwandu hweatomu eakoni inogadzirwa pakati pe spiro maeatomu, pamwe pamberi pezita reketani ye hydrocarbon inoenderana neyese ring; iyo nhamba inoparadzaniswa nechitsiko chezasi, muchimiro: snail [a, b] an alkane.

Hybrid screw

Izvozvo zvinoreva anomeric inonzi heterospiral ring rinoreva kuti maatomu maviri e-electron-positive kana imwe chete yevikoni inogadziriswa iri kune imwe nzira yekuderedza dhoni ye dipole ye molecule uye kuderedza intramolecular energy. Muna 1968, boka rekutsvakurudza raDescotes rakatanga kurongedza kushandiswa kwemamerica. Pavakadzidza bicyclic acetal, vakawana kuti maviri acho ari mumufananidzo uri pasi apa aiva ne57% yemutambo uye 43% yemutambo wekutsvaga mumusanganiswa wekubatanidza pa 80 C. Mutsara wechipiri chet trans Mukomana wacho wakagadzikana ne simba rinopesana ne0.71 kJ / mol. Nemhaka yea anomeric effect ye cis inotyisa, mutambo wekutengesa hauna zvakadaro.

Chirality

Vamwe vanokora michina vane chirwere chemaxi. Spiroatoms inogona kuva chiral nzvimbo, kunyange kana dzisina zvigaro zvakasiyana-siyana zvinoda kuchengeta chirwere. Apo zvindori zviviri zviri zvakafanana, iyo CIP system inopa chinonyanya kukoshesa kuwedzera kuwedzerwa kwekete rimwe uye imwe imwe nyanzvi yepamusoro pekutanga. Inogona kushandiswa kana ringinyo isina kufanana.

Cyclic makemikari inogona kuenzanisirwa nezvinotevera:

• Alicyclic chikamu

Ichi ndicho chigadzirwa chechigamu ichocho zvose zviri mutezo we aliphatic uye cyclic compound. Iyo ine imwe kana kupfuura yakazara kana isina kutengesa carbocyclic rings, asi zvindori hazvisi hwemafuta.

• Naphthenic

Maererano nehupamhi hwechindori, naphthenes inogona kuiswa mudiki, mashizha uye makuru. Cyclopropane uye cyclobutane zvinoonekwa sediki. Kazhinji cyclopentane, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, uye cyclooctane kune cyclotridecane ndeyero yakakura, uye huru inofungidzirwa kuva yakakura naphthenes.

Cycloolefin

Iyi ndiyo cyclic hydrocarbon ine intra-carbon carbon-carbon double bond. Monoolefins inoshandiswa nyore nyore inosanganisira cyclopropene, cyclobutene, cyclopentene uye cyclohexene, apo mapurisa ane mapurogiramu ane cyclopropadiene, cyclobutadiene, cyclopentadiene. Mira. Zvimwe ma-cyclic olefins, zvakadai se cyclobuteneand cyclopentene, zvinogona kuomeswa semafuta kuti aumbe mapurogiramu.

• Inonhuhwirira ye hydrocarbon

Mahydrocarboni akareruka uye anonyanya kukosha ndeaBeneneene uye ma homologues akadai se toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene nezvimwe. Mune zvinyorwa, mamwe mabhandi anonhuwira haasi maitiro e-benzene zvakakwana, asi maatomu ebhabhoni mavari anotsiviwa ne nitrogen, oksijeni, sulfuri nezvimwe zvinhu. Tinovatumidza kuti heterocycles, zvakadai se yuan shishanu se furan. Mhete yacho inosanganisira atomu yeokisijeni uye pyrrole ine atomu ye nitrogen.Thiophene ine sulfur atomu uye yakafanana.

Uye aromatics inogona kugoverwa mu:

• Monocyclic inonhuhwirira inonzi hydrocarbon
• Polycyclic anonhuhwirira hydrocarbon
Mahydrocarboni anonhuhwirira ane chindori cheketani inowanzonzi aliphatic arenes, uye zvinowanzobatanidzwa nemahydrocarboni anonyanya kufanana neatroene, ethylbenzene, styrene, nezvimwe.
• Heterocyclic compound

Inosanganisira rin'i rinonhuwira risingave neine heterocyclic ring or substituent. Vakawanda vavo vanozivikanwa kana kuti vanogona kuurayiwa. Iyo yakajeka yeyi makemikari ndeye naphthalene, ine zvindori zviviri zvinonhuwira, uyewo tricyclic makemiti ruthenium uye phenanthrene.

Polycyclic anonhuwira hydrocarboni haatauriri, kwete polar molecules inowanikwa mumarasha uye tar. Izvowo zvinhu zvinokonzerwa nehuwandu husina kupisa (semuenzaniso, injini uye inopisa, kana sango rinopisa mumhepo inopisa, etc.). Semuenzaniso, inobudiswa nokusakwana kwekuvhenekera kwemafuta emotokari akadai sehuni, marasha ematanda, mafuta, uye fodya. Uyewo inowanikwa mune nyama yakagadzirwa.

Polycyclic zvinonhuwira zvinyorwa kupfuura zvindori zvitatu zvine uwandu hwakasviba uye huwandu hwemhepo inopisa mumvura. Apo molecular weight inowedzera, zvose zvinokonzerwa uye kusviba kunopera. Bicyclic polycyclic makemikari anonhuwira ane mashoma ekudzivirira uye kupisa kwemhepo. Polycyclic zvinonhuwira zvinokonzerwa naizvozvo zvinowanzowanika muvhu uye mune zviduku kupfuura mumvura nemhepo. Zvisinei, polycyclic zvinonhuhwirira zvinonhuwira zvinowanzowanika pazvimiswa zvishoma mumhepo.

Ma polykiclic akawanda anonhuhwirira makemikari akatsanangurwa sevanokonjeni. Mishonga yekuongorora mishonga inoratidzira inoratidza kuti kugara kwenguva yakareba kuwandisa kwakanyanya kwema polycyclic zvinonhuwira zvinogona kukonzera kenza yepachirwere, kenza yemapapu, kenza yemudumbu uye kenza yeropa. Polycyclic zvinonhuwira zvinokonzera zvinogona kuparadza mazamu emagetsi mumuviri, zvinokonzera kukura kwemasero emukenza uye kuwedzera chiitiko chekenza.

Apo molecular weight inowedzera, chirwere chekemikari che polycyclic kemukati inonhuwira inowedzerawo, uye inonyanya kuora inoderera. A polycyclic aromatic compound, Benzo [a] pyrene (Benzo [a] pyrene), ndiyo yaiva yekutanga chemacogenogen yakawanikwa.

kunyoresa

Polymer kuwedzera mujeri

Iyo shrinkage yakawanda yepolymmer panguva yekuita mapurogiramu kana kuti yakasimbiswa inokonzerwa nesimba re van der Waals pakati pemamoromo emvura mumvura yakasviba kana kuti zvisingaverengeki maorelekemu akareba, uye kureba pakati pemakemikoro kwakakura; mushure mekunyora mapurogiramu kana kupindira, Covalent kushamwaridzana kwezvibvumirano pakati pezvigadziro zvinoguma zvinokonzera shrinkage ye polymer volume. Zvinotaurwa kuti shrinkage dzimwe nguva inouraya iyo polymer, yakadai ichikonzera kukurumidza kufema kwepolymmer, deformation, uye kuderera kwehutano. Kuti mugadzirise dambudziko rekukanda kwema polymer kuporesa, makemikari akaedza kuita zvisingaiti, asi kazhinji inogona kuderedza uye haigoni kubvisa zvachose kubwinya kwehuwandu. Kusvikira 1972, Bailey et al. yakagadzira tsamba ye spiro compounds uye yakawana kuti izvi zvinokonzerwa nepolymerized. Apo izwi risati ranyura, rinowedzera. Kuwanikwa kwevanhu vanowedzera zvakagadzirwa zvakakonzera kufarira kwevasayendisiti vakawanda, uye kuongorora kwakawanda kwakaitwa. Kuwedzerwa monomers kwave kushingaira kunoshanda kwema polymer zvinhu. Mishonga yakagadzirwa sa spiro orthoester uye spiro orthocarbonate yakanaka kuwedzera kukunda uye yakashandiswa mukugadzirira kwekugadzirisa masimba ane simba, kushanda kwepamusoro kusunga, biodegradable polymer zvishandiso uye zvigadzirwa zvepurasita zvepiritsi. Kugadziriswa kwemapurisa echinangwa-chinangwa uye kufanana kwema oligomeri ane mapoka anoshanda.

Electroluminescence

Zvichida kana kwete iyo inhengo yehupenyu inobudisa chiedza uye yakareba yekusvhenekera kwechiedza uye kubudirira kwekubuda kwechiedza kunobva kunyanya pamakemikari akaumbwa. Fluorescence kazhinji inowanikwa mumakemikari nemagetsi akaoma uye maitiro akafanana, izvo zvinowedzera kusanganiswa kwe electroni uye ikopiko yemakolomoto, iyo inobatsira kuvandudza kugadzirwa kwe fluorescence. Iko kune zvakawanda zvinokonzera chiedza-rima zvinhu. Mhando huru ndeyokuti: spiro ring, poly-p-phenylene vinylene, polythiophene, polythiadiazole uye masimbi ekubatanidza michina. Pakati pawo, spirocyclic makemikari anonhuwira ane maitiro akawandisa ekugadziriswa uye Akanaka kugadzikana uye coplanarity, girazi huru yekushandura kwekushisa uye yakadzikama yakasimba. The EL device inoshandiswa uye hairevi midziyo yakaoma, saka zvinogoneka kuderedza mari yekugadzira panguva iyo uye kugadzirira nyore nyore zvigadziri-nzvimbo.

pesticide

Mhemberero yakakoswa uye spiro yakawanda ine hetero atomu haisi nyore kubudisa kusagadzikana nemhaka yehutano hwavo hwakasiyana, uye vakanyatsoteerera mukugadzirwa kwemishonga inouraya. Somuenzaniso: Rudi et al. yakashuma 3,9-dichloro-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro [5.5] isingazivikanwi-3,9-dioxide uye sulfide Hydrogen yakaitwa kuti iite inobudisa spiro chimiro, 3,9-dihydro-3,9-dithio-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphospho [5.5] zvisina kufanira. Zvitsva zvaro zvitsva zvitsva zveinopoprophate insecticide nemishonga inouraya, iyo inokwanisa kubvisa masardard, ragweed, nezvimwewo kubva pagorosi, zviyo, cotton uye soya.