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Zvose Zvaunoda Kuziva NezvePyridines

Zvose Zvaunoda Kuziva NezvePyridines

Zvose Zvaunoda Kuziva Nezve Pyridines

Pyridine ndiyo inokosha heterocyclic mutezo weAineine kind. Pyridine inotorwa kubva kuBenene kuburikidza nekudzorerwa kweboka CH neN-atomu. Iyo shanduro yePyridine inofananidzwa nehutano hweBenene, nokuti inofananidzwa nekudzorerwa kweboka CH neN. Kusiyana kukuru kunosanganisira:

  1. Kubva pane imwe nguva yakakwana yenguva yakareba ye geometry nekuda kwekuvapo kwe hetero atomu, kutaura zvakananga, shomanana nitrogen-carbon bonds,
  2. Kudzorerwa kweatomu yehydrogen mundiro yepete neine unshared electron maviri, sezvinenge iri mundiro yepete, iri mu sp2 hybrid orbital, uye isingabatanidzi mune zvinonhuhwirira p-electron sextet. Iyi nitrogen imwechete iyo iyo inotarisira zvinhu zvakakosha zvepirridines,
  3. Iyo yakasimba yakasimba dipole inotsvakurudzwa kune imwe yepamusoro electronegativity yeatrogen atomu inofananidzwa neatomu yekasi.

Ring yePyridine inowanikwa mumakemikari anoverengeka anokosha, kusanganisira mavitamini niacin, pyridoxine, pamwe nemajini.

Mumwe muSkritish wemakemikari, Thomas Anderson akagadzira pyridine mu1849 seimwe yemakemikari anoita mafuta emapfupa. Mushure memaviri maviri, Anderson akawana pyridine yakachena nechepasti distillation yemafuta emapfupa. Icho chinopisa kwazvo, chisingabviri, chisingasviki mumvura, chine simba chakasviba chemvura uye chisingafadzi zvakasiyana, hove-kunhuhwirira.

Pyridine inoshandiswa nguva dzose sechirongwa chemishonga uye agrochemicals uye inonyanya kukosha uye kugadzirisa. Pyridine inogona kuwedzerwa kune ethanol kana iwe uchida kuita kuti isakodzero yekushandisa vanhu. Inoshandawo mukugadzirwa kwe antihistaminic zvinodhaka mepyramine uye tripelennamine, in vitro synthesis of DNA, mukugadzira sulfapyridine (mushonga wokurapa zvirwere zvehutachiwana uye zvirwere zvebhakitiriya), uyewo mabhaktericides, herbicides, nemvura inodzivisa.

Mazhinji emakemikari akabatanidzwa, kunyange zvazvo asina kubudiswa kubva pa pyridine, ane chindori chine. Mishonga yakadaro inosanganisira B mavitamini akaita se pyridoxine uye niacin, nicotine, nitrogen-ine michina yemiti, uye mushonga unorwisa tuberculosis unonzi isoniazid. Pyridine yakave yakagadzirwa kare seyakagadzirwa nemarasha emagetsi uye kubva kumarata emarasha. Zvisinei, kudengenyeka kwekuda kwe pyridine kwakaita kuti kuve nekugadzirwa kwemari yekugadzirwa kwemari kubva kumamoniya uye acetaldehyde, uye kupfuura 20,000 tonnes inobudiswa gore negore pasi rese.

Nomenclature of pyridine

Zita rakarongeka re pyridine, maererano neHantzsch-Widman nomenclature yakataurwa neIUPAC, iri azine. Asi mazita ehutano hwemashoko ekutanga anoshandiswa kazhinji; panzvimbo pacho, nomenclature ye heterocycles inotevera mazita anowanzozivikanwa. IUPAC haina kukurudzira kushandiswa kwe azine apo achitaura pyridine.

Kuverenga kweyendiro yeatomu muazine kunotanga pa nitrogen. Kugoverwa kwemahofisi ehurugwaro rwechiGiriki rwemazita (α-γ) uye mazita ekugadzirisa mazita ekuremekedza anowirirana neanoraromatic systems (para ortho, chinangwa,) inoshandiswa dzimwe nguva. Pano α, β uye γ zvinoreva zvikamu zviviri, zvitatu, uye zvina, pamwe chete.

Zita rakagadziriswa yezvivako zve pyridine pyridinyl, apo nhamba inotangira nzvimbo yeatomu inoshandiswa nhamba. Asi zita rezvakaitika kare pyridyl inokurudzirwa neIUPAC uye yakashandiswa zvikuru panzvimbo yezita rakarongeka. Izvo zvakagadzirwa kuburikidza nekuwedzerwa kwe electrophile kuatomu ye nitrogen inozivikanwa se pyridinium.

4-bromopyridine

2,2'-bipyridine

Dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid)

Icho chimiro chekutanga chepyidinium cation

Kugadzirwa kwe pyridine

Pyridine yakawanikwa seyakagadzirwa kwemalahle gasification kana kuti yakabviswa kubva mumarata emarasha. Iyi nzira yakanga isiri yakakwana uye inoshandiswa nevashandi: hombe yemarasha inenge yakapoteredza 0.1 percent pyridine, uye naizvozvo kucheneswa kwezvikamu zvakasiyana-siyana kwaidiwa, izvo zvishoma nezvishoma zvakasara. Nhasi, iyo yakawanda iyo pyridine inogadzirwa nenzira yekushandisa mazita akasiyana-siyana, uye yakajairika inokurukurwa pano pasi.

Pyridine Synthesis kuburikidza naBhohlmann-Rahtz

Pyridine Synthesis kuburikidza naBhohlmann-Rahtz inobvumira chizvarwa chemishonga inoshandiswa muzvikamu zviviri zvikuru. Kuyevedza kweonamine uchishandisa ethynylketones kunoguma mukati memiti inonzi aminodiene iyo, mushure mekupisa-induced isomerization, inoshandisa cyclodehydration kuti ibudise 2,3,6-trisubstituted pyridines.

Pyridine Synthesis kuburikidza nehurongwa hweBohlmann-Rahtz

Iyo inogadzirwa yakabatana neHantzsch Dihydropyridine Synthesis inoshandiswa kupiin situ-generated enamine uye enone miti inobereka dihydropyridines. Kunyange zvazvo Bohlmann-Rahtz Synthesis inonyanya kushandiswa, kunatswa kwemazinga ekushisa kwakakura uye anoshamisa kunodiwa kuti cyclodehydration ingematambudziko izvo zvisingakwanisi kushandiswa. Mazhinji ematambudziko akakundwa, zvichiita kuti Bohlmann-Rahtz Synthesis inokosha zvikuru pyridines chizvarwa.

Kunyange zvazvo pasina tsvakurudzo yekugadzira yakaitwa, vashanduri vanogona kuonekwa neH-NMR. Izvi zvinoratidza kuti chigadzirwa chikuru chekutanga Michael Addition uye chinotevera proton chinogona kunge chiri 2Z-4E-heptadien-6-imwe inotorwa uye inonatswa kuburikidza ne column column chromatography.

Zvinoshamisa kushandura kwekushisa kwemhepo kunoshandiswa pakuita Z/E isomerizations iyo inonyanya kukosha ye heteroji.

Nzira dzinoverengeka dzinobvumira kufanana kweetra uye prisystridine pyridines mune imwe nzira-nhanho dzakagadzirwa munguva pfupi yapfuura. Panzvimbo yekushandisa butynone se substrate, Bagley akaedza sarvents yakasiyana-siyana yekushandurwa kwezvishoma uye zvisingadhuri 4- (trimethylsilyl) asi-3-yn-2-imwe. Yakaratidzwa kuti DMSO chete uye EtOH chete ndiyo inogadzirisa zvinhu. EtOH inonzwisisika se polar uye protic solvent vs. DMSO se polar aprotic solvent. Mune maviri e-solvents, protodesily akaitika pakarepo. Bagley akaratidza zvakare kuti asidi catalysis inobvumira kuti cyclodehydration ienderere mberi nekushisa kwepasi.

Acid catalysis inowedzerawo kuwedzera kuwedzera. A enamine yakasiyana-siyana yakaitwa ne ethynyl ketones mu (5: 1) musanganiswa weAactic acid uye toluene kugona functionalized pyridines mune imwe danho muzvibereko zvakanakisisa.

Mushure mokubudirira kweBrønstedt acid catalysis, chimistori akaongorora ruzivo rweLisis acid acid catalysts. Mamiriro ezvinhu Akanakisisa Anoshandiswa kana makumi maviri emvura% ytterbium triflate kana gumi nemashanu mol% zinc bromide mu refluxing toluene. Kunyange zvazvo kutsvakurudza kwezvinhu kusina kuitwa, tinogona kufungidzira kuti kubatanidza nechokugadzirisa chinokurumidza kusimbisa cyclodehydration, Michael Addition, uye isomerization matanho.

Iyo yakaderera isinganzwisisiki yakakwana neasid-sensitive substrates. Semuenzaniso, asidi-inokonzera kuparara kweonamine inoitika ne cyano uye tert-butylester se electron ekubvisa mapoka. Imwe nzira yakasiyana ndeyekushandisa kwaAmberlyst-15 ion kushandura reagent iyo inobvumira tert-kugadzirisa.

Sezvo iyo enamines isingawanike nyore, uye kuti iwedzere nzvimbo yekugadzirisa, chirongwa che 3-chikamu chakaitwa uchishandisa ammonium acetate sechikonzero cheboka reamino. Munzira iyi inoshanda, enamine inogadzirwa in situ iyo inopindura ne alkynone ikozvino.

Mukuedzwa kwekutanga, ZnBr2 uye AcOH yakashandiswa sevamwe vanofambisa neutroene semvura. Zvisinei, kubvira kare zvakaratidzwa kuti mashizha e-acid-sensitive anogara achiita munzvimbo ine unyoro uye EtOH se solvent.

Chichibabin Synthesis

Chichibabin pyridine synthesis yakatanga kuziviswa mu 1924 uye ichiri chiito chikuru mumakemikari. Iyo inogadzirisa mhete, iyo inosanganisira kugadzirisa kushandiswa kwealdehydes, ketone, α, β-unsaturated carbon carbonyl. Uyezve, huwandu hwemaitiro angangosanganisira chero kusanganiswa kwezvinhu zvakataurwa pamusoro apa muammonia yakachena kana zvigadzirwa zvayo.

Kuumbwa kwe Pyridine

Kugadziriswa kwema formaldehyde uye acetaldehyde

Formaldehyde uye acetaldehyde ndiyo inonyanya kushandiswa kwepirridine isina kubviswa. Zvimwe, zvinodhura uye zvinowanikwa nyore nyore.

  1. Danho rokutanga rinosanganisira kugadzirwa kwe acrolein kubva formaldehyde uye acetaldehyde kuburikidza neKnoevenagel kugadzirisa.
  2. Mugumo wekugadzirwa unobva wakadzivirirwa kubva kune acrolein neacetaldehyde uye ammonia, zvichiita dihydropyridine.
  3. Kugadziriswa kwekupedzisira ishijidheji inogadzirisa neine simba-state catalyst kuti ipe pyridine.
  4. Izvo zvinotaurwa pamusoro apa zvinowanikwa muchitsime chegesi nehutambo hwakakura hwe400-450 ° C. Iyo yakagadzirwa yakagadzirwa ne pyridine, picoline kana nyore methylated pyridines, uye lutidine. Zvisinei, kuumbwa kunoenderana nechinokonzera kushandiswa uye kune imwe nzvimbo, inopesana nemitemo yemuiti. Kazhinji, iyo inoshandiswa ndiyo inoshandiswa nesimbi yendarira. Zvinonyanya kuzivikanwa ndezvokuti manganese (II) fluoride kana cadmium (II) fluoride, kunyange zvazvo thallium uye cobalt michina zvingashandiswa dzimwe nzira.
  5. Iyo pyridine inowanikwa kubva kune-inogadzirwa muhutano hwakawanda. Chirevo chikuru cheChichibabin pyridine synthesis chibereko chayo chakaderera, kushandura kusvika ne20% yemigumo yekupedzisira. Nokuda kwechikonzero ichi, maitiro asina kufungidzirwa echigadzirwa ichi haana kuderera.

Bönnemann cyclization

Bönnemann cyclization ndeyekuumbwa kwetatu kubva mukubatanidzwa kwezvikamu zviviri zve-acetylene molecule uye chikamu che nitrile. Chaizvoizvo, iyo nzira inoshandurwa yeReppe synthesis.

Iyo inogadziriswa inoshandiswa kana kupisa kunobva kumadziririro akakwirira uye kushandiswa kana kuburikidza nemufananidzo wekuita mavhidhiyo. Kana yakagadzirwa nechiedza, Bönnemann cyclization inoda CoCp2 (cyclopentadienyl, 1,5-cyclooctadiene) kuita sechinhu chinokonzera.

Iyi nzira inogona kubudisa ketani yezvigadzirwa zve pyridine zvichienderana nemishonga inoshandiswa. Semuenzaniso, acetonitrile ichabereka 2-methylpyridine, iyo inogona kubuda dealkylation kuti igadzire pyridine.

Dzimwe nzira

The Kröhnke pyridine synthesis

Iyi nzira inoshandisa pyridine seyakagadziriswa, kunyange iyo isingazobatanidzwi mumagumo ekupedzisira. Kusiyana, izvo zvinozoita zvichaita kuti pave nemishonga inoshandiswa.

Pazvakaitwa ne-bromoesters, pyridine ichaenda kuneMichael-yakafanana nekuita ne unsaturated carbonyls kuumba iyo inonzi pyridine uye pyridium bromide. Mhinduro yacho inobatwa neammonia acetate mukati me 20-100 ° C mamiriro akanaka.

The Ciamician-Dennstedt rearrangement

Izvi zvinosanganisira rongedzo yekuwedzera kwe pyrrole ne dichlorocarbene kuumba 3-chloropyridine.

Gattermann-Skita synthesis

Muchiitiko ichi, malonate ester munyu inopindirana ne dichloromethylamine pamberi pechando.

Boger pyridine synthesis

Kugadzirisa kwe pyridines

Izvozvo zvinotevera zvinogona kufanotaurwa nezve pyridines kubva pane zvigadzirwa zvemagetsi:

  1. Iyo heteroatom inoita kuti pyridines isingashandisi zvakanyanya kune zvinowanzogadziriswa zvinokonzerwa nemagetsi anogadzirwa. Kusiyana neizvi, mapiriniine anowanzosvibiswa nucleopic attack. Pyridines inoshandiswa kushandiswa kwema electrophilic (SEAr) kunyanya kusuruvara asi nucleopic substitution (SNAr) nyore nyore kupfuura benzene.
  2. Electrophilic reagents attack zvichida pane Natom uye pa-bC-atomu, asi nucleophilic reagents inosarudza a-uye cC-atomu.

Electrophilic Addition paNitrogen

Mukusarudzwa kunosanganisira kushandiswa kwehutano uchishandisa imwe chete yemasikironi paine ring ring, seprotonation uye quaternization, pyridines inofanana nechepamusoro yeanphatic kana kuti amamate anonhuhwirira.

Apo pyridine inotarisa sechando kana nucleophile, inoita cation pyridinium iyo yakasvibiswa sextet inogadziriswa, uye nitrogen inowana mvumo yakarongeka.

Protonation paNitrogen

Pyridines inoumba kristalline, kazhinji hygroscopic, mishonga ine protic acid.

Nitration paNitrogen

Izvi zvinoitika nyore nyore nekuita kwe pyridines ne nitronium salts, yakadai se nitronium tetrafluoroborate. Protic nitrating agents zvakadai se nitric acid, zvechokwadi, inotungamirira chete kuN-protonation.

Acylation at nitrogen

Acid chlorides uye arylsulfonic acids sei nokukurumidza pamwe pyridines generating 1-acyl- uye 1- arylsulfonylpyridinium munyu iri mhinduro.

Alkyl halides uye sulfates zvinonzwika nyore nyore ne pyridines inopa quaternary pyridinium salts.

Nucleophilic Substitutions

Kusiyana neBenene, zvakawanda zvinokonzerwa neucleuclelic zvinogona kubudirira uye zvinogadziriswa zvinotsigirwa ne pyridine. Izvi ndezvokuti mhete yacho ine uwandu hwemagetsi eatoni. Izvi zvinosanganisira kushandiswa nekubviswa kwe hydride ion uye kubviswa-kuwedzerwa kuwana sarudzo yepamusoro aryne uye inowanzoenderera ku 2- kana 4-nzvimbo.

Pyridine chete haigone kuitika pakuumbwa kwenhamba dzinoverengeka dzemaucleuclelic substitutions. Zvisinei, kuchinjwa kwe pyridine ne bromine, sulfonic acid fragments, chlorine, uye fluorine zvinogona kuguma neboka riri kusiya. Maumbirwo e organolithium zvinogona kuwanikwa kubva kune yakanakisisa boka rinobuda re fluorine. Pakudzvinyirira kwakanyanya, nucleophilic inogona kuita nealkoxides, thiolates, amines, uye ammonia michina.

Vashomanana heterocyclic Kugadzirisa kunogona kuitika nekuda kwekushandisa boka rakasara riri kusimuka rinosanganisira hydride ion. Zvigadzirwa zvePyridine pa 2-nzvimbo zvinogona kuwanikwa kuburikidza neChichibabin. 2-aminopyridine inogona kuramba ichibudirira apo sodium amide inoshandiswa seyo nucleophile. Iko-molejeni ye-hydrogen inoumbwa apo protonti yeboka reamino inosanganiswa ne hydride ion.

Zvakafanana nebenene, pyridines mapeji akadai se heteroaryne anogona kuwanikwa kuburikidza neyucleophilic substitutions ku pyridine. Kushandiswa kwesimbi yakasimba se sodium uye potasium tert-butoxide kunogona kubatsira kubvisa zvigadzirwa zve pyridine apo uchishandisa kodzero yekusiya boka racho. Kutevera kuiswa kwe nucleophile kuhutano hutatu, inoderedza chisarudzo uye inotungamirira pakuumbwa kwesanganiswa ine zvinyorwa zviviri zvinogona kuitwa.

Electrophilic Substitutions

Mamwe mapirinini e-electrophilic anoshandiswa anogona kuramba achienda pane imwe pfungwa kana kuti haafaniri kupfuurira zvachose. Kune rumwe rutivi, chinhu chinonzi heteroaromatic chinogona kukurudzirwa kuburikidza nekushanda kwezvigadzirwa zve electron. Friedel-Crafts alkylation (acylation) muenzaniso wezvinyorwa uye acylations. Izvozvo zvinokundikana kupinda mu pyridine sezvo zvichiguma pakuwedzera kweatrogen atomu. Izvo zvinotsiviwa zvinonyanya kuitika panzvimbo yechitatu-iyo imwe yema electron-rich carbon atom iri munheyo inoita kuti iite nyore kuwedzerwa electrophilic.

Urongwa hwePyridine N-Oxide

Electrophilic substitutions inogona kukonzera kuchinja kwenzvimbo ye pyridine pa 2- kana 4-nzvimbo nemhaka yezvakaipa zvinoshandiswa zvakasimba. Zvisinei, nzira dzekuedza dzinogona kushandiswa panguva yekuita electrophilic kushandiswa pa pyridine N-oxide. Iyo gare gare inoteverwa ne nitrogen atomu deoxygenation. Nokudaro, kuiswa kwe okisijeni kunozivikanwa kuderedza huwandu pane nitrogen nekuwedzera nzvimbo panzvimbo ye2-position uye 4-position carbons.

Mishonga ye divalent sulfuri kana katatu phosphorus inozivikanwa kuti inogona kushandiswa nyore nyore iyo yakanyanya kushandiswa kubvisa atomu yeakisijeni. Triphenylphosphine oxide is a compound that is formed after oxidation of Triphenylphosphine reagent. Ndiyo imwezve reagent inogona kushandiswa kubvisa atomu ye okisijeni kubva kune imwe chinhu. Izwi iri pasi apa rinotsanangura kuti huwandu huwandu hwemagetsi hunoita sei ne pyridine.

Kutungamira pyridine nitration inoda mamwe mamiriro ezvinhu anorwadza, uye kazhinji haina zvishoma. Mhinduro ye dinitrogen pentoxide ne pyridine muhupo hwesodi inogona kuguma nekuumbwa kwe3-nitropyridine. Zvinyorwa zve pyridine zvinogona kuwanikwa kuburikidza ne nitration ye nitronium tetrafluoroborate (NO2BF4) nekusarudza nitrogen atomu zvakakwana uye zvemagetsi. Synthesis yeviri makemikari e6-dibromo pyridine inogona kuguma nekuumbwa kwe3-nitropyridine mushure mekubviswa kweatomu dzebromini.

Direct nitration inofungidzirwa kuva yakanyanya kufanana kupfuura yakarurama sulfonation ye pyridine. Kubikira kwe pyridine pa 320 ° C kunogona kukonzera pyridine-3-sulfonic acid nokukurumidza kupfuura kubika sulfuric acid pamatemu akadaro. Kuwedzerwa kweSulfur element kune nitrogen atomu kunogona kuwanikwa nekuita sangano re SO3 muhupo hwe mercury (II) sulfate inoshanda sechigadzirisa.

Kutarisa kutsvaira uye brominoni kunogona kupfuurira zvakanaka zvakasiyana ne nitrate uye sulfonation. 3-bromopyridine inogona kuwanikwa kuburikidza nekuita kwema molecular bromine mu sulfuric acid pa 130 ° C ne pyridine. Pakuzora, chigumisiro che 3-chloropyridine chinogona kunge chiri pasi pamberi pearuminium chloride iyo inoshanda sechinhu chinokonzera ku 100 ° C. Kutungamirirwa kwakanaka kweHalogen uye palladium (II) kunogona kukonzera zvose zviviri 2-bromopyridine uye 2-chloropyridine.

Applications zvePyridine

Chimwe chezvinhu zvakakosha zvinonyanya kukosha kumakemikari emakemikari ipo pyridine. Mu 1989, iyo yose yakagadzirwa ye pyridine pasi rose yaiva 26K tonnes. Sezvo 1999, 11 kubva kune 25 yakakura yepamusoro yepigridine nzvimbo dzakagadzirwa dzakanga dziri muEurope. Vavhidhiyo vakuru vePyridine vaisanganisira Koei Chemical, Imperial Chemical Industries, uye Evonik Industries.

Mukutanga kwe2000s, kugadzirwa kwe pyridine kwakawedzera nepamusoro. Semuenzaniso, nyika yeChina yega inokonzera kugadzirwa kwegore rose kwe30,000 tonnes. Nhasi, kubatana kwekubatana pakati peU.S. neChina kunokonzerwa nekugadzirwa kwenyika yepamusoro pe pyridine.

Pesticides

Pyridine inonyanya kushandiswa sepamberi yezvinyorwa zviviri zvinonzi diquat uye paraquat. Mugadziriro ye-pyrithione-based fungicides, pyridine inoshandiswa senhengo inokosha.

Mhinduro pakati peZincke nePyridine inoguma mukugadzirwa kwemakemikari maviri - laurylpyridinium uye cetylpyridinium. Nokuda kwezvinyorwa zvavo zvepiritsipiti, iyo michina miviri yakawedzerwa kumishonga ekunyora mazino uye mumuromo.

Kurwiswa ne-alkylating agent kune pyridine zvinoguma muN-alkylpyridinium salts, cetylpyridinium chloride kuva mumwe muenzaniso.

Paraquat Synthesis

Solvent

Imwe shanduro iyo pyridine inoshandiswa iri mumagetsi eKnoevenagel, iyo inoshandiswa sechinhu chakashata-chechi, chechi, uye chenguva yakasarudzwa. Pyridine inonyanya kunaka kune dehalogenation, iyo inoshandiswa senheyo yekuparadzanisa kugadzirisa paunenge uchibatanidza chigumisiro hydrogen halide kuumba pyridinium munyu.

MuAcyline uye zvinokonzera, Pyridine inobatsira anhydrides kana carboxylic acid halides. Kunyanya kushanda mumagadziriro aya ndeye 4- (1-pyrrolidinyl) pyridine uye 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), iyo inowanikwa muropa re pyridine. Mukugadzirisa kwekuita, Pyridine inowanzoshandiswa sechinhu chekutanga.

Kuumbwa kwe pyridinium kuburikidza nekupedza kubviswa ne pyridine

Pyridine zvakare inokosha inowanikwa zvakasikwa mumuchengeterwe wemastile. Kunze kwekushandiswa sekusarudzwa mukugadzirwa kwemarubhi uye dhayi, inoshandiswa zvakare kusimbisa kamba yekotani.

IU.S. Food and Drug Administration inobvumira kuwedzerwa kwe pyridine muzvishoma zvishoma kune zvekudya kuitira kuti vagovapa nekunaka kunorwadza.

Muchigadziriswa, kuonekwa kwechirevo che pyridine kune kese 1-3 mmol·LL-1 (79-237 mg · L-1). Kuva nheyo, pyridine inogona kushandiswa seCarf Fischer reagent. Zvisinei, imidazole inowanzoshandiswa sechinotsiva pyridine sezvo iyo (imidazole) ine inhuhwirira inofadza.

Precursor kuPiperidine

Pyridine hydrogenation ne ruthenium-, cobalt-, kana nickel-based catalyst pamatambo makuru anokonzera kugadzirwa kwepiperidine. Iyi inokosha inotrogen heterocycle iyo inokosha inogadzira chivakwa chivako.

Special Reagents Kubva paPyridine

Muna 1975, William Suggs naJames Corey vakagadzira pyridinium chlorochromate. Inoshandiswa kuti inoshandisa dorosi yewaini yepamusoro kune ketoni uye inodhaka yewaini kusvika kune aldehydes. Pyridinium chlorochromate inowanzowanikwa apo pyridine inowedzerwa kugadziro remhepo inokonzera hydrochloric uye chromic acid.

C5H5N + HCl + CrO3 → [C5H5NH] [CrO3Cl]

Ne chromyl chloride (CrO2Cl2) kuva carcinogenic, imwe nzira yaifanira kutsvaga. Mumwe wavo ndeye kushandisa pyridinium chloride kuti apore chromium (VI) oxide.

[C5H5NH+] Cl- + CrO3 → [C5H5NH] [CrO3Cl]

Sarret reagent (yakaoma ye chromium (VI) oxide ne pyridine heterocycle mu pyridine), pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC), iyo Cornforth reagent (pyridinium dichromate, PDC), uye realent Collins (yakaoma ye chromium (VI) oxide nepyridine heterocycle in dichloromethane) yakafanana nekromium-pyridine michina. Izvo zvinoshandiswawo nokuda kwekushandiswa kwehujidhi, zvakadai sokushandurwa kwechipiri uye chekutanga zvinodhaka kune ketone.

Sarret naCollins reagents haisi kungozvigadzirira kugadzirira, asi zvinowanzova nengozi. Iyo inofanana uye inogona kuvhara panguva yekugadzirira. Nokudaro, kushandisa PDC nePCC zvakakurudzirwa. Kunyange zvazvo reagents mbiri dzakashandiswa kwazvo muZ70 uye 80s, dzinowanzoshandiswa ikozvino nekuda kwehuwandu hwavo uye hunosimbisa hutachiona.

Chimiro cheCarbtree's catalyst

Mukubatana kwemishonga, pyridine inonyanya kushandiswa se ligand. Izvo zvinobva, sezvinobva pane iyo 2,2'-bipyridine, inosanganisira 2 pyridine molecules yakabatanidzwa nechisungo chimwe, uye terpyridine, molecule ye 3 pyridine zvindori zvakabatana pamwechete.

Chitubu chakasimba cheLee chinogona kushandiswa sechinzvimbo che pyridine ligand icho chikamu chesimbi yakaoma. mamirire iri kushandiswa munyika catalysis pamusoro polymerization uye hydrogenation siyana, kushandisa, Somuenzaniso, Carabtree kuti tiwedzere. Iyo pyridine Lingard iyo yakatsiviwa panguva yekupindura inodzorerwa shure kwekupedzwa kwayo.

References

Nomenclature ye Organic Chemistry: IUPAC Mazano uye Mazita Anofanirwa 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: Royal Royal Chemistry. 2014. p. 141.

Anderson, T. (1851). "Ueber akafa Producte der trocknen Destillation thierischer Materien" [Pamagadzirwa emhepo yakasvibiswa yemhuka]. Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie. 80: 44.

Sherman, AR (2004). "Pyridine". MuPaquette, L. Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. e-EROS (Encyclopedia of Reagents yeOnganic Synthesis). New York: J. Wiley & Vanakomana.

Behr, A. (2008). Angewandte homogene Katalyse. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. p. 722.